This is perhaps the most widely held misconception about Title IX. Athletics are not the only component of academic life governed by Title IX. Other areas which fall within the scope of Title IX include:
Title IX also prohibits sexual harassment, which includes sexual assault and sexual violence.
Title IX is designed to create parity in athletics, as well as other educational opportunities and experiences for men and women. Title IX does not require educational institutions to cut men's athletic programs. Each educational instituion determines how it will comply with Title IX regulations.
While Title IX has been used mostly by women seeking to protect their rights, Title IX also serves to protect the rights of men. Title IX requires that males and females receive fair and equal treatment in all areas of education.
Title IX specifically allows for, or has been interpreted to allow for, single-sex programs in a number of categories. Included among those are: religious schools, traditional men's/women's colleges, social fraternities/sororities, youth service organizations such as The Boy/Girl Scouts of America, and beauty pageants.
The under-representation of women in science, medicine, and engineering may violate Title IX. Educational institutions are required to provide women in these disciplines resources, support, and promotional opportunities comparable to their male colleagues.
The U.S. Supreme Court has broadened the interpretation of Title IX to protect from retaliation whistle-blowers who accuse educational institutions of sex discrimination. The court is of the opinion that reporting incidents of discrimination is integral to Title IX enforcement and would be discouraged if retaliation against those who report it goes unpunished.